Lordosis is a medical term that refers to an excessive inward curvature of the spine. It is also known as "swayback." Lordosis can affect different parts of the spine, including the cervical (neck), thoracic (upper back), and lumbar (lower back) regions. The condition can be caused by a variety of factors, including muscle weakness, injury, or birth defects, and it can lead to back pain and difficulty with daily activities. Treatment for lordosis may include physical therapy, exercises to strengthen the muscles supporting the spine, and in severe cases, surgery.

Back pain: The excessive inward curvature of the spine can put additional pressure on the spinal discs, causing pain and discomfort.

Stiffness: The curvature of the spine can make it difficult to move, leading to stiffness and limited mobility.

Postural changes: People with lordosis may have a noticeable forward arch in their lower back, which can affect their posture.

Muscle weakness: The muscles supporting the spine may become weakened due to the excessive curvature, leading to further back pain and instability.

Balance problems: The curvature of the spine can affect balance, making it difficult to walk or perform other activities.
Muscle weakness or imbalances: Weakness or imbalances in the muscles that support the spine can lead to an excessive inward curvature.

Injury: Trauma or injury to the spine can cause lordosis, especially if it leads to muscle weakness or imbalances.

Birth defects: Certain birth defects, such as spina bifida, can result in lordosis.

Degenerative conditions: Degenerative conditions, such as arthritis or degenerative disc disease, can cause the spinal discs to weaken and result in lordosis.

Obesity: Excess weight can put additional strain on the spine, leading to lordosis.

Poor posture: Habitual poor posture, such as slouching, can lead to lordosis over time.

Genetics: In some cases, lordosis may be hereditary and run in families.

Physiological causes, Biological causes, Trauma
Physical examination: A doctor will usually start by conducting a physical examination, during which they will observe the patient's posture and inspect the curvature of their spine.

Imaging tests: Imaging tests, such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans, can provide a clear picture of the patient's spine and help to diagnose lordosis.

Medical history: The doctor will also ask the patient about their medical history, including any previous injuries or conditions that may have affected their spine.

Symptoms: Patients with lordosis may experience pain in the lower back, difficulty standing or sitting for long periods, and difficulty moving.

Measurement of the curvature: To diagnose lordosis, the doctor may measure the curvature of the patient's spine and compare it to normal standards.

Differential diagnosis: The doctor may also consider other conditions that may cause similar symptoms, such as scoliosis or kyphosis, and rule them out through additional testing.